Github CLI Basics - My Quick Reference Guide
Since we started using Pelican to generate the website for the non-profit I volunteer at we also started storing the code for this site in github to foster collaboration on the site. The problem arose that many of our volunteers did not know how to use git or github.
So, I figured it would be helpful to put together a quick reference guide for the most common git commands necessary for working with that website github repository.
GitHub provides desktop clients that include a graphical user interface for the most common repository actions and an automatically updating command line edition of Git for advanced scenarios.
- GitHub for Windows
- GitHub for Mac
- Git distributions for Linux and POSIX are available on the official Git SCM web site.
Configure user information for all local repositories using
git config --global user.name "[name]"Sets the name you want on your commit transactions
git config --global user.email "[email address]"Sets the email you want on your commit transactions
git config --global color.ui autoEnables helpful colorization of command line output
Start a new repository or obtain one from an existing URL
git init [project-name]Creates a new local repository with the specified name
git clone [url]Downloads a project and its entire version history
Review edits and craft a commit transaction.
git statusLists all new or modified files to be committed.
git diffShows file differences not yet staged.
git diff --stagedShows file differences between staging and the last file version.
git add [file|directory]Adds new files to your local repository and/or stages all changes for commit.
git rm [file]Deletes the file from the working directory and stages the deletion
git rm --cached [file]Removes the file from version control but preserves the file locally
git mv [file-original] [file-renamed]Changes the file name and stages it for commit
git reset [file]Unstages the file, but preserve its contents
git commit -m "[descriptive message]"Commits the tracked changes and prepares them to be pushed to a remote repository using a git push command.
git reset [commit]Undoes all commits after [commit], preserving changes locally
git reset --hard [commit]Discards all history and changes back to the specified commit
Synchronize changes between local and remote repositories by registering a repository bookmark and exchanging version history.
git fetch [bookmark]Downloads all history from the repository bookmark. If no bookmark is specified it assumes the latest.
git merge [bookmark]/[branch]Combines bookmark’s branch into current local branch
git pullDownloads bookmark history and incorporates changes
git push [alias] [branch]Uploads all local branch commits to GitHub
Name a series of commits and combine completed efforts such as branching off from the main repository, merging a branch back into the main, and switching to a previous version of the repository to work with.
git checkout [branch-name]Switches to the specified branch and updates the working directory
git branchLists all local branches in the current repository
git branch [branch-name]Creates a new branch
git branch -d [branch-name]Deletes the specified branch
git merge [branch]Combines the specified branch’s history into the current branch
Browse and inspect the evolution of project files.
git logLists version history for the current branch
git log --follow [file]Lists version history for a file, including renames
git diff [first-branch]...[second-branch]Shows content differences between two branches
git show [commit]Outputs metadata and content changes of the specified commit